Specific combination method of solar collector and high-rise residential appearance
According to the three requirements of functionality, aesthetics and safety, combined with the current Chinese collector types and the characteristics of the modeling of high-rise residential buildings, the following combinations of solar collectors and high-rise residential appearance are listed.
1. Solar collector combined with flat roof
Installing solar collectors on flat roofs is the easiest and most feasible way, with no special requirements for residential orientation and collectors, and sufficient solar radiation. However, attention should be paid to the distance between the front and rear collectors to avoid blocking.
The solar collectors are fixed on the roof through brackets and bases, and are neatly arranged at a certain inclination angle. Waterproof measures should be taken when pre-buried bases and pipelines pass through the floor slab, which should not affect the original waterproofing, thermal insulation structure and drainage of the roof. Due to the high height of high-rise residential buildings, the solar collectors installed on the roof are not in the normal field of vision, as long as they are arranged in an organized manner, it will not have a great impact on the appearance of the building.
2. Combination of solar collector and pitched roof
The solar collector is installed on the south-facing slope, and the inclination angle is consistent with the slope of the roof, which better reflects the effect of the combination of the collector and the building. Different material textures increase the richness of the roof form, especially the glass texture on the surface of the flat plate collector, which combines with the roof to form a skylight effect. But for high-rise residential, if the shape of the sloping roof is adopted, the roof area is smaller than that of the flat roof, and due to the various changes in the shape of the sloping roof, the effective usable area is also smaller, and generally it can only meet the hot water load requirements of the top households. The installation technology is more complicated, try to avoid the impact on the roof waterproof, thermal insulation, cloth and drainage. According to the relationship between the collector and the roof, there are three installation methods: overhead type, surface type and slope embedded.
(1) Overhead type
Install solar collectors by pre-installing supports or installing metal support frames on the original roof structure. There is a large distance between the collector and the roof, and the height of the base may affect the aesthetics of the building. Pay attention to the impact of the support or bracket on the roof drainage.
(2) Face application
The solar collector is installed close to the roof, and the fixed components are pre-buried in the roof structure layer, which is closely integrated with the roof and will not affect the original roof insulation and waterproof structure, but attention should be paid to the collector’s impact on roof drainage.
The solar collector is completely embedded in the roof insulation and waterproof layer, which resembles the VELUX window on the sloping roof, and has the highest degree of integration with the appearance of the building. However, this installation method also has the highest requirements on installation technology. Pay attention not to damage the original roof insulation and waterproof structure, pay attention to the smooth drainage of the roof, and avoid the accumulation of rainwater at the installation site of the collector. In areas with a lot of rain, the collector can be installed near the drainage gutters to ensure smooth drainage of the collector without affecting roof waterproofing and drainage.
3. Solar collectors, floating panels, decorative frames combined with vacuum tube collectors
Combined with floating panels and frame installation in the form of an array, a strong sense of rhythm is formed. The solar collector has a certain shading effect and can also form rich shadow changes. The overhead space of the roof frame can become a place for residents’ activities. The collector is not directly installed on the roof or wall, and will not cause damage to the structure, waterproof and thermal insulation of the building.
4. Solar collector and wall combination
The combination of solar collectors and walls can reduce the length of pipelines, and can also solve the problem that high-rise buildings cannot install collectors due to the limited roof area. When the collector and the wall are combined, the sunshine analysis should be carried out first to ensure that the surface of the collector has sufficient sunshine. The south-facing wall has good sunshine, but there are many balconies and bay windows, and the wall is divided into smaller areas. The installation position of the collector can choose the wall between the windows and the wall below the window. The east-west wall can be installed in a large area in the form of a combined pipe. The outer wall bracket on which the collector is installed should be anchored with the embedded parts on the wall. When the pipeline passes through the wall, the corresponding threading pipe should be embedded and waterproof treatment should be done.
5. Solar collector and balcony combination
The plate-like appearance of the flat-plate collector is similar to the balcony railing, and the grid-like texture of the vacuum tube is similar to the balcony railing. Combining the collector with the balcony railing and railing can not only meet the sunshine requirements of the solar collector, but also coordinate with the original building components, increase the color and texture of the facade, and form a sense of rhythm, which is more suitable for combining with high-rise residential buildings. Due to aesthetic considerations, the solar collector is generally parallel to the balcony railing (board) or the installation inclination is large, which will reduce the amount of solar radiation received by the collector. This adverse effect should be considered in the design.
6. Solar collector and grid combination
In the design of high-rise residential buildings, the location of the outdoor unit of the air conditioner is often reserved and shielded with a wooden or metal grille. The texture of the vacuum tube and the grille is similar. In the architectural design, a space for installing the heat collector tube can be set aside near the air-conditioning unit, which is integrated with the air-conditioning decorative grille without adding additional façade elements.