The development characteristics of solar photovoltaic power generation
(1) China’s key technology mainly relies on foreign introduction, and its R&D and independent innovation capabilities are weak. The development of China’s photovoltaic industry basically relies on the introduction of foreign equipment and production lines, and then through digestion, absorption and re-innovation to improve localization capabilities. A number of key enterprises are paying more and more attention to investment in research and development, establishing corporate research and development centers, and strengthening close cooperation with universities and scientific research institutions in various countries. Governments at all levels have also significantly increased their investment. China’s photovoltaic industry is still weak in research and development and lacks independent innovation capabilities. It is a very important strategic task to improve the independent innovation capabilities of photovoltaic technology as soon as possible.
(2) The scale of the industry is developing rapidly, over-expanding, and facing integration. The scale of solar photovoltaic power generation in China has developed rapidly since 2005. The annual output including crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon cells has soared from 50 MWp in 2004 to 1088 MWp in 2007, an increase of 20 times in three years, becoming the world’s number one. Large producer country. This is mainly due to the strong pull of the world’s photovoltaic market, which has caused many investors to flood in. Therefore, this development model is greatly affected by the world economic situation. The international financial crisis that began in mid-2008 has already brought harm to China’s photovoltaic industry. At present, China’s solar cell production capacity has far exceeded market demand. Therefore, industrial integration is imperative.
(3) The development of the industrial chain is uneven, and China’s domestic market needs to be cultivated. The overall development of China’s industrial chain for the production of solar photovoltaic products is uneven. The packaging of solar cells and the production of consumer products using solar cells in the downstream of the industrial chain have low capital investment thresholds and low technical content, and are developing rapidly; the production of polysilicon raw materials in the upstream basically relies on imports. Based on the analysis of the situation in 2007, the output and demand of raw materials differed by nearly 10 times, and the problem of unbalanced development of the industrial chain is severe. Another key problem facing China’s photovoltaic industry is that the domestic market is too small. At present, more than 95% of the solar cells produced by Chinese companies are exported. Such a situation where the market is seriously lagging behind the industrial development is extremely detrimental to the sustainable and healthy development of China’s photovoltaic industry. It needs to attract the attention of management departments at all levels and increase the intensity of the development of the Chinese market.
(4) Incomplete standards, testing and certification systems. China has already issued and implemented a number of relevant national standards for solar photovoltaic cells and other products, but the relevant standards for solar photovoltaic power generation technology are still relatively lacking. There are currently three testing institutions that can perform performance testing on photovoltaic products, but none of them have been authorized by the CNCA. Therefore, China has not yet started the international certification of photovoltaic products. The absence of a national-level photovoltaic product testing agency, insufficient standard system, and failure to carry out product certification will have an adverse impact on standardizing China’s domestic product quality and reducing product export barriers. This is another important issue that needs to be improved and resolved in the future development of China’s solar photovoltaic industry.
(5) The subsequent maintenance and management of stand-alone photovoltaic power generation systems and equipment need to be regulated. At present, there are more than 1,000 off-grid photovoltaic systems and power stations in China, and there are common problems such as unclear owners, and the warranty period has expired but the original design and installation unit still provides free maintenance services.